Business Horizons

Standardization of Botanicals, Vol. 2

SOB2b

Standardization of Botanicals, Vol. 2

By V. Rajpal

Testing of medicinal herbs and their derivatives like extracts, phytochemicals, oleoresins etc has all along been a difficult and controversial subject due to the complex nature of the active constituents of the medicinal herbs found wild or cultivated in various regions of the world. An effort is on to include, at least some testing methods, in various pharmacopoeias but there is still a wide gap between the medicinal herbs and their testing methods. This book containing 25 monographs of medicinal herbs fills that gap in knowledge base with detailed, ready to use and validated extraction processes and methods of testing to be performed in a well-equipped testing laboratory.

Volume I with 25 monographs was published in 2002 which was perhaps one of the very few books providing specifications and testing methods for various types of herbal extracts like soft extracts, dry extracts and phytochemicals. Most of the data provided was based on the hands-on experience of the author Dr. V. Rajpal who has been constantly associated with the testing as well as processing of medicinal herbs and their derivatives since 1976 in an industrial setting. His experience of providing consultancy for setting up herb processing and testing laboratories led to his in-depth knowledge of problems faced by the herb processing factories and quality control laboratories.

 Since 2002 Dr. V. Rajpal had been working on 25 other commonly used medicinal herbs in India as well as other countries. He has collected all the data with latest national and international references to make the all-new 25 monographs complete and up-to-date.

Each monograph provides the following information:

Distribution and description of the plant
Chemical constituents and chemical structures
Extraction processes
Specifications of extracts and phytochemicals
Testing procedures, Biological activities
Toxicity and safety aspects, Properties and uses
Therapeutic indications, Dosage and References
ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. Rajpal obtained his doctorate in phytochemistry in 1976 and since then has been associated with the herb processing and testing of botanicals, their extracts and phytochemicals in an industrial setting. He also provides consultancy services to various companies in this sector. He is presently working as a Technical Director with a company engaged in extraction of botanicals.

WHO SHOULD BUY THIS BOOK

Manufacturers of herbal extracts
Manufacturers of herbal formulations
Manufacturers of herbal cosmetics
Manufacturers of nutritional supplements
Testing laboratories
Research Institutions
Herb growers
Academic institutions
Regulatory affairs specialists
CONTENTS

Adhatoda vasica Nees
Distribution and Description
of the Plant
Chemical Constituents
EXTRACTION PROCESS
Specifications Sheet
Adhatoda vasica leaf (Vasaka) Dry Extract

TESTING METHODS
1. Identification of Alkaloids by HPTLC
2. Estimation of Vasicine by HPLC
3. Procedure for Estimation of Total Alkaloids

Biological Activities
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Aegle marmelos Linn

DISTRIBUTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
EXTRACTION PROCESS
SPECIFICATIONS SHEET
Aegle marmelos Fruit Powder

TESTING METHODS
1. Imperatorin
2. Total Alkaloids
3. Mucilages

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
REFERENCES

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Aesculus hippocastanum

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents

EXTRACTION PROCESSES
1. Extraction of Seeds
2. Extraction of Seed Skin (Integument)

Specifications Sheet
1. Aesculus hippocastanum Dry Extract – Spray dried powder
2. Beta Escin

TESTING METHODS
Estimation of Aescin in Aesculus Hippocastanum (Horsechestnut) Extract

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Ammi majus

DISTRIBUTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

EXTRACTION PROCESS
Xanthotoxin (Methoxsalen)

Specifications Sheet
Xanthotoxin (Methoxsalen)

TESTING METHODS
Testing by HPLC Procedure

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES

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Artemisia annua

DISTRIBUTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
EXTRACTION PROCESS

SPECIFICATIONS SHEET
1. Artemisia annua herb Thick Paste
2. Artemisinin
3. Artemether
4. Arteether
5. Artesunate

TESTING METHODS
Estimation of Artemisinin

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Asparagus racemosus Willd

DISTRIBUTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
EXTRACTION PROCESS

SPECIFICATIONS SHEET
Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) Dry Extract

TESTING METHODS
Estimation of Saponins

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Azadirachta indica A. Juss

DISTRIBUTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

EXTRACTION PROCESSES
1. Extraction Process of Leaf Extract
2. Extraction Process of Bark Extract
3. Process of isolation Gedunin - an antimalarial compound of Neem bark
4. Extraction Process of Azadirachtin from Neem Seeds

SPECIFICATIONS SHEET
1. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Leaf Dry Extract
2. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Bark Dry Extract
3. Azadirachtin
4. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Seed Kernel Oil

TESTING METHODS
1. Thin Layer Chromatographic System of Azadirachtin
2. Determination of bitterness value in Neem leaves, bark and seed extracts
3. Determination of Total Bitters
4. Estimation of Azadirachtin In Neem Products by HPLC method

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents
EXTRACTION PROCESS
Specifications Sheet
Coleus forskohlii Root Powder

TESTING METHODS
GLC Method of Assay of Forskolin

Biological Activities
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
REFERENCES

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Crataeva nurvala Buch – Ham

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents
EXTRACTION PROCESS

Specifications Sheet
Crataeva nurvala Dry Extract

TESTING METHODS
1. Estimation of Saponin in Crataeva
Nurvala Extract
2. Estimation of Lupeol by HPLC

Biological Activities
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES

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Curcuma longa Linn

DISTRIBUTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT
Chemical Constituents

EXTRACTION PROCESSES
Extraction Process of Curcuminoids 95.0% and above

Specifications Sheet
1. Curcuminoids
2. Curcuma longa Dry Extract
3. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Soft Extract (Oleoresin)
4. Curcuma longa Rhizomes Oil

TESTING METHODS
1. Estimation Of Curcumin and Colour Value by Spectrophotometric Methods
2. Estimation by HPLC
3. Estimation by Alkalimetric Method [E. Merck]
4. TLC System for Curcuminoids

Biological Activities
TOXICITY STUDIES AND SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Gloriosa superba Linn
Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents
EXTRACTION PROCESS

Specifications Sheet
1. Colchicine
2. Gloriosa superba rhizomes Dry Extract

TESTING METHODS
1. Estimation of Colchicine by HPLC Procedure
2. TLC System for Colchicine and other Alkaloids

Biological Activities
SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Glycine max Merrill

Distribution and Description of the Plant

Chemical Constituents

PROCESS FLOW OF SOYA BEAN EXTRACTION

EXTRACTION PROCESSES
1. Solvent Extraction Process
2. Isolation and Purification of Lecithin
3. Isolation of Choline Phosphatide
4. Preparation of Liposomes
5. Characterization of Liposomes
6. Process of Soya – Phytochemical Extract (SPE)
7. Process for manufacturing Tocopherols and Phytosterols from oil refineries waste

SPECIFICATIONS SHEET
1. Soya bean Extract
2. Soya Isoflavones Powder
3. Soya Lecithin Paste
4. Soya Lecithin Powder
5. Soya sterols Powder
6. D-Delta-Rich mixed Tocopherols

TESTING METHODS
1. Estimation Method of Soya Sterols in Various Fractions of Soya
2. Assay for Total Tocopherol
3. G C Determination of Sterols and Tocopherols In D.O
4. HPLC Analysis Procedure of Isoflavones in Extract or Supplements
5. Estimation of Saponins in Soya Phytochemical Extract [SPE] and other Soya Products
6. HPLC Analysis of Choline Phosphatide in Commercial Lecithin Paste / Powder / Preparations

Biological Activities
CONTRAINDICATIONS AND SAFETY ASPECTS
TOXICITY AND SAFETY
PROPERTIES AND USES
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall ex DC

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents
EXTRACTION PROCESS

Specifications Sheet
Holarrhena antidysenterica (Kurchi) Bark Dry Extract

TESTING METHODS
Estimation of Total Alkaloids

Biological Activities
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Lagerstroemia speciosa [L.] Pers.

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents
EXTRACTION PROCESS

Specifications Sheet
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Banaba) leaves Dry Extract-spray dried powder

TESTING METHODS
1. Estimation of Corosolic Acid by HPLC
2. Estimation of Total Tannins

Biological Activities
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Matricaria recutita Linn

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents
EXTRACTION PROCESS

SPECIFICATIONS SHEET
1. Matricaria recutita flowers Soft Extract
2. Matricaria chamomilla (Chamomile) Oil

TESTING METHODS
1. TLC System for Essential Oil
2. TLC System For Flavonoids

Biological Activities
SAFETY AND TOXICITY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Ocimum sanctum Linn
Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents

EXTRACTION PROCESSES
1. Oleoresin
2. Process for Dry Extract
3. Process of Ocimum sanctum leaves Juice Extract

Specifications Sheet
1. Ocimum sanctum Leaves Dry Extract
2. Processed Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves Thick Paste (Oleoresin)

TESTING METHODS
1. Estimation of Ursolic Acid in Extract
2. Determination of volatile oil and its analysis

Biological Activities
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Phyllanthus emblica Linn

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents

EXTRACTION PROCESSES
1. Phyllanthus emblica extract powder
2. Extraction Process of Oil Soluble Phyllanthus emblica Extract

Specifications Sheet
1. Processed Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) Fruit Dry Powder
2. Emblica officinalis (Fresh Amla Juice) Dry Extract – Spray Dried Powder
3. Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) fruit oil Soluble Extract

TESTING METHODS
1. Determination of Tannins by the method published by WHO
2. Testing Procedure of Tannins by U.S.S.R.P X Method
3. Analysis of Tannins by High performance capillary electrophoresis [HPCE]
4. Assay Of Ascorbic Acid by HPLC
5. Estimation of Ascorbic acid by IP-1996 method p. 67
6. TLC System for Ascorbic Acid
7. TLC System for Gallic Acid

Biological Activities
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Piper nigrum

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents

EXTRACTION PROCESSES
1. Extraction Process for Oleoresin
2. Extraction Process for Dry Powder
3. Extraction of Piperine

Specifications Sheet
Piper nigrum Dry Extract

TESTING METHODS
1. Estimation of Piperine in Piper Nigrum Dry Extract
2. Estimation of Piperine in Piper Nigrum Extract by HPLC
3. Estimation by Spectrometric Method

Biological Activities
SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Podophyllum emodi Wallich

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents

EXTRACTION PROCESSES
1. Podophyllum Resin
2. Podophyllotoxin

Specifications Sheet
1. Podophyllum Resin
2. Podophyllotoxin
3. Etoposide

TESTING METHODS
1. Estimation of Podophyllotoxin by HPLC Procedure
2. By TLC – UV Spectrophotometer
3. Assay as per IP- 1966 Procedure

Biological Activities
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Psoralea corylifolia Linn

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents

EXTRACTION PROCESS
For Dry Extract

Specifications Sheet
Psoralea corylifolia (Babchi) Dry Extract

TESTING METHODS
1. By HPLC Method
2. By Spectrophotometric Method

Biological Activities
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC FUNCTIONS
DOSAGE
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents

EXTRACTION PROCESS
For Dry Extract

Specifications Sheet
Pterocarpus marsupium Wood Dry Extract

TESTING METHODS
1. Estimation of Total Tannin Compounds
2. Analysis of Epicatechin and other Flavonoids by Gas Chromatography as Trimethylsilyl Derivatives
3. HPLC method of analysis of – Epicatechin

Biological Activities
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC FUNCTIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Sida cordifolia Linn

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents
EXTRACTION PROCESS

Specifications Sheet
Sida cordifolia root Dry Extract

TESTING METHODS
1. Ecdysterone by HPTLC - Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, 1999, Vol.II
2. Procedure for Estimation of Total Alkaloids as Ephedrine

Biological Activities
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC FUNCTIONS
DOSAGE
TOXICITY
SAFETY ASPECTS AND ADULTERANTS
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Taxus wallichiana Zucc

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents
EXTRACTION PROCESS

Specifications Sheet
Taxol

TESTING METHODS
Biological Activities
TOXICITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arnot

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents
EXTRACTION PROCESS

Specifications Sheet
Terminalia arjuna Dry Extract

TESTING METHODS
1. Testing Procedure of Tannins (By U.S.S.R.P. Method) In Terminalia arjuna Bark (Arjuna) Extract
2. Testing Procedure of Triterpenic Glycosides by Liberating Sapogenins
3. Testing Procedure of Triterpenic Glycosides by Gravimetric Method

Biological Activities
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

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Terminalia chebula Retz

Distribution and Description of the Plant
Chemical Constituents

EXTRACTION PROCESSES
1. Extraction process of Tannic Acid
2. Extraction process of Ellagic Acid

Specifications Sheet
1. Terminalia chebula Dry Extract
2. Tannic acid-Pharmacopoeial grade

TESTING METHODS
1. Testing Procedure of Tannins (By U.S.S.R.P. Method) in Terminalia chebula Fruit (Harir) Extract
2. HPLC Procedure for Analysis of Tannins P. 1755 U.S.P XXIV

Biological Activities
PROPERTIES AND USES
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
REFERENCES

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ANNEXURES

Annexure – 1 Ayurveda Institutes In India
Annexure – 2 World Herb Associations
Index of Chemical Constituents

 

 

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Standardisation of Botanicals Vol 2
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